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Occidental culture

If there is no thymos but only eros, then there is no harmony between this two foci of the ellipse named human soul.


For being successful in e.g. science, technique (technology), economy, intelligence (brainpower), there must be a very good cultural system, be it a culture itself (like the Occidental one) or a nation (like the German one) or a person, and this must be based on good and thus advantageous nature conditions.


I give you an example for the almost proved fact that southern people are not made for philosophy, science, technique (technology), industry, economy, intelligence (brainpower), but made for religion and idolatry: the climate in the south makes the people more passive, lazy or even motionless (think of the Indian culture with its meditative people), but receptive to religion, but the climate in the north makes the people more active, busy, ..., etc.. The cause or reason therefor is a logical phenomenon which can easily be proved by science. We are endotherm animals, and endotherm animals produce their temperature by themselves (in their bodies). So if the ambient temperature is hot, endotherm animals get more passive, lazy, or even motionless, and if the ambient temperature is cold, endotherm animals get more active, busy, ..., etc.. High temperature means lazy endotherm animals, low temperature means busy endotherm animals. The logical implication for this eaxmple is:
If the climate is hot, then the endotherm animals are lazy.
And we have the syllogistic form:
1.premise (propositio maior): Endotherm animals are lazy in hot climate zones.
2. premise (propositio minor): Human beings are endotherm animals.
Conclusion (conclusio): Human beings are lazy in hot climate zones.
This could still be continued, although it gets more and more difficult when it comes to proving the thesis that northern people are made for philosophy, science, technique (technology), industry, economy, intelligence (brainpower), while southern people are made for religion, but in all probability this thesis is true. Exceptions prove the rule. And the history has also shown that this thesis is true.


Some people are interested in making the other people stupid. And because of that they want the mass of people to have less or even no more knowledge, no more wisdom etc., because this mass of humans can easily be replaced by machines (e.g. robots and androids) which are lovely slaves because this servants never rebell, if they are well constructed by their constructers (architects). This is and will be not a “game“, but this are and will be scientific, technical, engineering (also social engineering), economical, political, social, and, last but not least, cultural / civilised (more: civilisationised) facts! Faustian it is, and that means in terms of Kultur: Occidental it is, and that means in geographical terms: Northern and Western European it is, and that means in historical terms: German it is. Shall we complain about its advanced decline after thousands of years? In the meantime the facts are going on. For this and the following century, or even the entire future there are two or even three possibilities of human development left:
1)  Extinction of all human beings (and even more beings) in this or the following century.
2)  The “world” of “the last men” (“die letzen Menschen” [Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche]) will be totally installed and last forever.
3)  A new regional Kultur will arise (but I don't believe in this although it wouldy be the best of this three possibilities).

If the mass of humans had, have, or will ever have a knowledge of that and a “free will” or a “free decision”, than this mass of humans would not have decided, would not decide, or will not decide to become slaves.


The word “culture”has different meanings, and unfortunately the history of the English language elimintated some of this different meanings. Nowadays the word “culture” merely means “education” and the state allocation of “literature”, “music” “theater”, “science” and so on, but not “literature”, “music” “theater”, “science” on their own (by themselves!), and also not religion. In the German language the word „Kultur“ is used in both ways, so when I use the word “culture“, I mean both (a) “education” and the state allocation of “literature”, “music” “theater”, “science” a.s.o., and (b) “literature”, “music” “theater”, “science” on their own (by themselves!) and religion.


Cultures come and go. Maybe that the time will come for a new kind of human culture - similar to that time when that kind of human culture started which we have been knowing for about 6000 years, namely as different cultures, not as one human culture. Maybe in some years, decades, or centuries a new kind of human culture will appear as merely one human culture, probably after a very strong depopulation.


My whole (natural and cultural) theory is based on spiral-cyclic motions - almost all changes and developments, also all evolution and history.

Let's look to Japan in order to see what will happen also in North America and Europe soon. How man more people will than become redundant, unemployed. The maintenance area, the area of caretakers, which is currently booming in Europe, will then be mechanised.


Gauß contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, algebra, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, geophysics, electrostatics, astronomy, and optics.

Sometimes referred to as the Princeps mathematicorum or “the foremost of mathematicians” and “greatest mathematician since antiquity”, Gauß had a remarkable influence in many fields of mathematics and science and is ranked as one of history’s most influential mathematicians.


Carl Friedrich Gauß was the greatest mathematician of all time.


For 2150 years Euklid had been the greatest mathematician of all time, but then - at the end of the 18th century - Gauß replaced Euklid on his throne, because Gauß became the greatest mathematician of all time!


We have the subject-object-dualism (**). In order to overcome the subject-object-dualism Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) established his existence-philosophical concept „In-der-Welt-Sein“ (“To-be-in-the-World”) as an existential of human beings’ „Dasein“, as a human existence in the world. **


I think the subject/object dualism is one of the fundamental problems. Heidegger as the last great philosopher tried to overcome the problem with his „Existenz(ial)-Ontologie“ („existenc[e]ial ontology“), also called „Fundamentalontologie“ („fundamental ontology“), especially with his concept „In-der-Welt-Sein“ („To-Be-in-the-World“) as an existential of human beings' „Dasein“, as a human existence in the world. (**). I really don't know whether Heidegger succeeded in that case. Probably it is not possible to resolve that problem.


I think that the subject/object dualism is one of the greatest philosophical problems - perhaps even the greatest.

How can we and especially each of us ever experience whether the subjective or the objective side is the “truth”?

What makes me sure that I and the experiences I make with myself “really”exist, or the world and the experiences I make with it “really”exist? And especially: Which of both sides is true, or are both true? Which? (1.) The subjective one? (2.) The objective one? (3.) Both?

Do I think, or does the world think in me, or are both sides true? Is the world my will and my representation / idea (cp. Arthur Schopenhauer, „Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung“ [„The World as Will and Representation“], 1818), or merely nothing but my thoughts, or both?


Phlilosophemes or theories can be right or true without any solution of the subject/object problem because we human beings merely decide and say this or that is true/right or false/wrong, but we probably do not know what is true/right or false/wrong. That decisions always change, but also repeat or recapitulate somehow, and only sometimes there is a moment of more wisdom. Maybe that this moment of more wisdom (of some philosophers or other thinkers - of course) can resolve the problem of the subject/object dualism, but it is possible too that this moment of more wisdom also indicates that the problem of the subject/object dualism can probably not be resolved.

Please don’t forget: We - the human beings - decide or say that this or that is true/right or false/wrong. And we believe in that - more or less. Ask some members of this forum, whether they really believe in logic or not. Most of them would say: “Yes, but ...”, and with their “but” they actually say “No(, but ...)”, because they would rather believe in religious things, especially the so called “atheists”.

So there ist merely a small group of human beings who search for a solution for the problem of the subject/object dualism. And currently the average IQ of the human beings is declining. What does that mean? In any case: It also indicates that the most human beings do not want wisdom, but religion and other things which make them stupid. Or, in the orther case, they want wisdom, but are not wanted to want wisdom, but religion and other things which make them stupid.

But the greatest barrier is the human Geist itself. How can we really know that a subject “is” and that a object “is” without thinking that they are always different or even not existent?


Technology or technique by itself is a temporary „progress“, because in the very long run it is also something that comes and goes.

Look at the evolution ....


Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler was a superb writer, superb thinker, a man of the facts who wrote down the historical facts in his books. Influenced by Heraklit, especially by Goethe, and by Nietzsche, he was a life philosopher, precisely a culture philosopher.

In his main work he said that he owed almost everything Goethe and Nietzsche:

„Zum Schlusse drängt es mich, noch einmal die Namen zu nennen, denen ich so gut wie alles verdanke: Goethe und Nietzsche. Von Goethe habe ich die Methode, von Nietzsche die Fragestellungen, und wenn ich mein Verhältnis zu diesem in eine Formel bringen soll, so darf ich sagen: ich habe aus seinem Augenblick einen Überblick gemacht. Goethe aber war in seiner ganzen Denkweise, ohne es zu wissen, ein Schüler von Leibniz gewesen.“ - Oswald A. G. Spengler, Der Untergang des Abendlandes, 1917, S. IX.
My translation:
„In conclusion, it urges me to once again give the names, which I owe almost everything: Goethe and Nietzsche. From Goethe I have got the method, from Nietzsche the questions, and if I should bring my relationship with this in a formula so I can say I have made of his moment an overview. But Goethe in his whole way of thinking, without knowing it, had been a disciple of Leibniz.“ - Oswald A. G. Spengler, The Declinig of the West, 1917, p. IX.


In Spengler’s theory as well as in the German language there is a difference between „Kultur“ (“culture” [“civiliation”]) and „Zivilisation“ (“civilisation”) - b.t.w.: this difference has more or less disappeared in the English language. Unfortunately the German „Kultur“ is often translated with both “culture” and “civilisation”, and merely „Zivilisation“ is always “civilisation”. What you call “civilisation” is not always „Zivilisation“ in German, but often „Kultur“ and merely sometimes also „Zivilisation“. That is very important when it comes to understand a „Kulturphilosophie“ (“culture philosophy” / “civilisation philosophy”).

According to Spengler the „Zivilisation“ is a late part of the „Kultur“, and in the West this part began in the end of the 18th century or the beginning of the 19th century (b.t.w.: this is also the time when, according to Hegel, the history perhaps ended [**|**|**] - but that is not important for the understanding of Spengler's theory), and leads into a more and more non-historical time, a cultural / civilisational “winter”, a kind of senility. The West („Abendland“ = “Eveningland”) will reach this time of cultural / civilisational “winter” in the 21st, or the 22nd, or the 23rd century, approximately in the year 2200. When this time will be reached it will be possible that the end of history will also be reached because there will probably be no new „Kultur“ anymore.


The average intelligence is sinking - that is a fact. This fact can be proven, although merely by statistics, but that doesn't matter, because the statistics are an indicator, and an indicator is adequate enough for such trends. You need intelligence, if you want to resist against such a dictatorship we are living in. Becoming smarter is not enough.


Humans have no “free will”, but only a relative free will.


The will, how Schopenhauer defiend it (as Kant's „Ding an sich“ - “thing in itself” / “thing as such”), is a free will, but not the will of the human beings because human beings depend on the will. Since God has been murdered - at the end of the 18th century - his free will have also been murdered. Since then human beings pride themselves to be like God, to have a free will, but that is a false conclusion.


Interest (=> will) is the most important thing (perhaps it is really Kant's „Ding an sich“ - “thing in itself” / “thing as such”). A good example is the “sexual selection” that I would prefer to call reproductive interests when it comes to get ressources (including offspring / children), namely either by (a) dominance or by (b) will to appeal. If a female can't reproduce herself and doesn't want a male or children, because she is kidded - for example - by feminism or other nihilisms, then she is no longer part of the evolution. End.

Who benefits from that?


“Free will” is not what human beings or other living beings have, because they are part of the evolution. For example: As a human you can't decide your origin, your genetic program, your birth, your death. And if you can't decide about the most important phenomenons of your life, then you have no “free will”.

Market propagandists say that you can decide about your way of life by choosing or selecting articles, consumer goods, products, so that you may think you have a “free will”, but what you have is merely a “relative free will”. Political propagandists say that you can decide about your way of life by choosing or selecting politicians, their parties (homonym!), their ideologies (modern religions), so that you may think you have a “free will”, but what you have is merely a “relative free will”. They say that you can decide about your way of life by choosing or selecting your sex, gender, so that you may think you have a “free will”, but what you have is merely a “relative free will”. You can merely choose in a relative way. God, the nature, or Kant’s „Ding an sich“ (“thing as such” / “thing in itself”) may have or be a “free will”, but humans don't know who or what they really are and have killed them, either absolutely (God) or partly (nature, „Ding an sich“).

Human beings who think that they have a “free will” are:

1) God(s).
2) Nature.
3) „Ding an sich“ (“thing as such”, “thing in itself”).
4) Lunatics.

Human beings have no “free will”.


It depends on the philosophy, especially the metaphysics and its ontology, or the theory whether willingness differs live-matter from non-live matter or not. For example: according to Schopenhauer the will is Kant’s „Ding an sich“ ( “thing in itself” / “thing as such”).


My theory is based on analogies. For example: Sun and technique (technology), planets and cultures, moons and economies, other bodies and art. The precondition I make is that the problem of the “dualism” between nature and culture can be overcome by analogies. In addition to the great “dualism” between nature and culture there are three other “dualisms”; so actually there are four “dualisms”, thus one “quadrialism” - four realms, and each realm has two subrealms; so I've got eight subrealms (little “worlds”), and this eight „worlds“ are: (1) physical, (2) chemical, (3) biological, (4) economical, (5) semiotical (incl. psycholgical/sociological), (6) linguistical, (7) philosophical, (8) mathematical. We can combine them: I (1 and 2), II (3 and 4), III (5 and 6), IV (7 and 8 ); or: A (1,2,3,4 or 1,2,3,8) and B (5,6,7,8 or 4,5,6,7). We can also combine them in this way, which makes the quadrialism clearer: (1 or I) natural, (2 or II) natural-cultural, (3 or III) cultural, (4 or IV) cultural-natural; and the eight „worlds“: (1a or Ia) physical, (1b or Ib) chemical, (2a or IIa) biological, (2b or IIb) economical, (3a or IIIa) semiotical, (3b or IIIb) linguistical, (4a or IVa) philosophical, (4b or IVb) mathematical. But the principal point is the analogy by itself, just in principle.

**


Please look at the following pictures:

Spiralbewegungen

Spiralbewegungen

Now please imagine, there is not a spiralic, but merely a cyclic “way”. What do you see and think then? I guess you see and think that there is an action replay, an iteration, a recurrence, a reapeat, a repetition, a rerun ... and so on. That's the relation to the cyclicity - in any case (for example: physical, chemical, biological, economical, semiotical [incl. pscholgical/sociological], lingustical, philosophical, mathematical]). And now please imagine, there is not merely a cyclic, but also a spiralic “way” - then, of course, the cyclic “way” becomes a more relativised cyclic “way”, but that doesn't matter, because it is just an impression. I think that devolopment (incl. evolution and history) is certainly a spiral-cyclic “way” which merely perhaps follows the time arrow - the former and not the latter is important for my theory.

The “house of change”:

| History |
|___ Evolution ___|
|______ Development ______|
|_____________ Change _____________|

History is merely the “roof” of the “house of change”.

Time and the “house of change”:

| History |
|___ Evolution ___|
|______ Development ______|
|_____________ Change _____________|

------------------------------------------------------------------------
_____________________ Time ______________________

History is merely the “roof” of the “house of change”.

You probably know the meaning of “hyperonym” (“superordination”) and “hyponym” (“subordination”). My interpetation of “change”, “development”, “evolution”, “history” in their structural relations to each other is the following one:

1) “Change” is the hyperonym of the hyponyms “development”, “evolution” and “history”.
1,1) “Development” is a hyponym of the hyperonym “change” and the hyperonym of the hyponyms “evolution” and “history”.
1,1,1) “Evolution” is a hyponym of the hyperonyms “change” and “development” and the hyperonym of the hyponym “history”.
1,1,1,1) “History” is merely a hyponym, namely of the hyperonyms “change”, “development” and “evolution”.

That consequently means: if history ends, evolution or development or even change do not have to end simultaneously; and if evolution ends, history ends simultaneously, but development and change do not have to end simultaneously; and if development ends, evolution and history end simultaneously, but change does not have to end simultaneously. So in that relation merely change is independent. Development depends only on change. Evolution depends on change and development. History is the most dependent, because it depends on change, development, and evolution.

You may compare (1) change with our universe in time, (1,1) development with our sun, our planet, or our moon ... etc., (1,1,1) evolution with a living being (for example an alga, or a snake, or a human being without history ... etc., and (1,1,1,1) history with a - of course - historical human being.

They all belong to 1 (change), and merely historical human beings belong to 1,1,1,1 (history).

The history of cultures (civilisations) is also a spiral-cyclic move - psychologically (I prefer the word semiotically) cognizable, because cultures have something like a soul or psyche ans their own original symbolics.

History conceptually depends on evolution, development, change; evolution conceptually depends on development and change; development conceptually merely depends on change. So change is probably eternal because it is universal or cosmic; but development, evolution and a fortiori history are not eternal - they can end.

An analogy:

| Culture-Nature |
|_______ Culture _______|
|_________ Nature-Culture _________|
|_________________ Nature __________________|

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
______________________________ Time _______________________________

So nature (compare: physics and chemistry) is probably eternal because it is universal or cosmic; but nature-culture (compare: biology and ecology/economy), culture (compare: seniotics and linguistics) and a fortiori culture-nature (compare: philosophy and mathematics) are not eternal - they can end (because neurons, brains, extensive and complex brains, mind, especially in a sense of „Geist“, are needed). Unfortunately most of the scientists and even philosophers neglect the latter, although it is the highest level. In the case of scientists, it does not surprise me, because they have, especially at present, the task to serve the rulers. But in the case of the philosophers, it surprises me a bit. If humans really were free (they are not!), they would not neglect the culture-nature (compare: philosophy and mathematics) because they would more try to transport it in reality and in their everyday life.

If there is no awareness of change, then no development can be observed; if development can not be observed, then evolution can also not be observed; if evolution can not be observed, then history can also not be observed. Backwards: If history can be observed, then evolution, development and change can also be observed; if evolution can be observed, then development and change can also be observed; if development can be observed, then change can also be observed.

What does that mean?

Space and time are probably eternal, so nature and change are probably eternal. Our capability of observing nature and change depends on space and time on the objective side and on our senses and brains on the subjective side. Without these preconditions we would not exist; so there would also not be any human answer to the question why space and time can also be observed and interpreted as nature and change, as nature-culture and development, as culture and evolution, as culture-nature and history. So if there is not only nature but also nature-culture (trannsition between nature and culture), culture and culture-nature (trannsition between culture and nature), then it is possible to find change in all four realms and to find nature in all four kinds of events.


The synthesis becomes a new thesis (cp. Hegel’s „Dialektik“). Life with no synthesis would be very boring, merely acting (thesis) and reacting (antithesis), no qualitative change. There would be no qualitative development without any synthesis (and further: no new thesis). Humans changed their lives - compare the humans of the Stone Age and the humans of the last 6000 years.

Without any synthesis life would be merely a ping pong game, because it would merely consist of thesis and antithesis, for example: action and reaction.


Different cultures/civilisations interpret or even construe the reality in a different way than other cultures/civilisations.


Many people don't think very much, but if (if!) they really think that something exists, they do it in two different ways: (1) subjectively, so they think existence has merely to do with the thinking subject, and (2) objectively, so they think existence is something which has nothing to do with the thinking subject. If people think they can perceive the object, they actually have to ask themselves, whether that object exists without any subject or because of the existence of the perceiving subject, so that the object does not exist. I am speaking about the subject/object dualism (**). Is subjectivity or objectivity that what we call „reality“ or is it both, so that there is no solution for the subject/object dualism?

If you think that all around you - everything except you - merely “exists” because of the fact that you are perceiving and thinking, then you can also say that there is nothing that “exists” except you, so you are either merely a subject without any object or both subject and object (or even: there is no subject and no object - because there is no difference between them).


Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz once asked:

Warum ist überhaupt Seiendes und nicht vielmehr Nichts?
(“Why is there anything [being] at all rather than nothing[ness]?”)
(„Seiendes“ is derived from „sein“ [„to be“] and means an identical mode of „being“.)

Do you know the answer?

Or think about the Indian culture/civilisation - the so called “Hinduism” - and its concept of “nirvana”. Do you exactly know what is meant by that? Non-Indian and Indian people have a different understanding of “nirvana”.. Is it nothingness, nonentity? (That is the way how Western people understand “nirvana”.) What is it?

What do you think when you are anxious and don't know the reason - the cause - for that fact? What or who “affects” you then? Is it the nothingness? And if so, then the nothingness also “affects”, but is it then really nothingness?

We can think the nothingness and the difference between subject and object. Is this difference the nothingness? Or is it even the “affectance”? Or both? Are they the same (see above) or at least similar? If so, then we can't know anything of them because it is the definition - the linguistic convention or the lingusitic laws - of the word “nothing” to be nothing at all, and the noun for that is “nothingness”.

You can't just brush aside our ability for thinking the nothingness and the subject/object dualism (**).

Nothingness has no affect, else it would be no nothingness. And if nothingness were no nothingness, then we would have to find another word for nothingness, and we soon would have find one because we can think nothingness. Nothingness has no affect, but exists, at least in our thoughts, and our thoughts exist as well. That all depends on the definition, so your definition has to be a different one - and is a different one (I know) -, but if your definition is right, then you have to exclude nothingness from your definition of “existence”.

Remember that I am philophising, and the philosophy has not resolved the problem of the subject/object dualism. The science can't resolve it anyway, and I think the philosophy probably neither.

It is possible that the nothingness is God, or the unmoved mover, or the unaffected affect.


The thought of nothingness is in our mind.

So we must consider the irrationality and not give up the rationality. Nothing of the rationality, logic. Nothing!

We should do what mathematicians do!


Nothingness is a special case. One can compare it with the number “0” (it is a part of the realm called “whole numbers” and [either] not [or sometimes even also!] a part of the realm called “natural numbers”). Both “natural numbers” and “whole numbers” belong to the realm called “rational numbers”.


What does a mathematician do with the word „nothingness“? Mathematically „nothingness“ is „0“. But do mathematicians say that „0“ is not a number because it is „nothing“? No, they do not.


“Willpower”does not mean “will to power”. “Willpower” means a kind of power, namely a “power of will”, but “will to power” means a kind of will, namely a “will which tends to power”.

So both “willpower” and “will to power” are more different than many people think.


If you have the phenomenons “A” and “B”, then “A” can be “homogeneous” or “similar” to “B”, but not identical to “B” (because “A” can merely be identical to “A”). In German the words “(der/die/das)selbe” and “(der/die/das) gleiche” stand for the English word “(the) same”, but the former means “identical”, “same in an identical way”, and the latter means “homgeneous”, “equal”, “similar”, “same in a homogeneous way”.


I know the meaning of the English “identical”, but in this case I interpreted it as “self” (“selbst” in German because the German word “identisch” and the English word “identical” have exactly the same meaning and can be interpreted as “self” and as “same”), although I know that it also can be interpreted as “same” (for example: of two or more things). But you shouldn't change the word “identical” because in the English language it is not possible to have one of those two meanings in merely one word. It is possible in the German language but not in the English language. In English one has always to decide whether “x” or “y” is meant (because both can be meant), in German one can use the word “selbig” or “selbst” (cp. the English “self”, although it can't be used in this way) for the meaning of “x”, and the word “gleich” (cp. the English “same”, although it is used in both ways) for the meaning of “y”. Whereas “x” means “same of one thing” and “y” means “same of two things or of one thing, if it has changed very much” (cp. the ship of Theseus).


The error of Zenon’s paradox “Achilleus and the Tortoise“ is the failure to recognize the fact that the only mathematically infinite divisibility of a line or a length of time does not mean anything against their concrete finiteness.

The concrete line and time length of Zenon’s paradox “Achilleus and the Tortoise” is finite, although the mathematical divisibility is infinte. Therefore it is a paradox.


Joining information theory and economy makes sense, but I don't think that everyone who calles himself an “information theoretician” or an “economist” is really an information theoretician or an economist.


Mathematical impossibility and physical impossibility are not always the same, are not always consistent. What is mathematically possible does not always have to be also possible in reality, and what is possible in reality does not always have to be also mathematical possible.


The mankind should not allow the annihilation of the difference between “truth” and “reality”. In Europe it is already practically forbidden to speak of “truth”. “There is no truth at all” is often said as soon as one speaks of it. Ridiculous. It is so important that the difference remains.


One of the least understood concepts is that of the “psyche”. Formerly the word „psyche“ was used mythological and religiously and actually relatively well understood, since modernism it has been going through the propaganda mills, and no one can really say what it could be or even is. Misunderstood words or concepts are especially well suited for the propaganda and the establishment of new religions.


Originally - in Ancient Greek - “psyche” had the meaning of “breath”, “breeze”, “soul”, than it had remained as “soul” for about 2000 years. Since modern times it has been changing to everything you want, and that is very much different from the older meaning.

Our current (modern Western) understanding of “psyche” is entirely wrong. “Psyche”has changed from a mythological, religious, and idealistic word and concept to a purely (idealistic) ideological, propagandistic word and concept.


In any case, the meaning of “psyche“ has changed because the zeitgeist and especially the social general environment by industrialisation / mechanisation / automatisation have changed. There is a correlation between them.

In general I use “psyche“ in the sense of “not really organic and also not really spiritual (geistig)”. Psychology can be found somewhere between sociobiology, or mere sociology, and philosophy. I often prefer „semiotics“ especially when I put the focus on the signs or characters - they give nore information.


Starting from the phenomenology Heidegger developed his existential philosophy, which became the first and the only real existential philosophy and conquered the world.


Who is really thinking? God?

When you think that you think, what do you then think about the question “who is really thinking”?


„Ich bin ein Teil von jener Kraft, // Die stets das Böse will und stets das Gute schafft. // .... Ich bin der Geist, der stets verneint! // Und das mit Recht; denn alles, was entsteht, // ist wert, daß es zugrunde geht; // Drum besser wärs, daß nichts entstünde. // So ist denn alles, was ihr Sünde, // Zerstörung, kurz das Böse nennt, // Mein eigentliches Element.“ - Johann Wolfgang (von) Goethe, Faust (I), 1790 / 1808, S. 64-67. **
Translation:
„I am Part of that Power which would // The Evil ever do, and ever does the Good. // .... I am the Spirit that denies! // And rightly too; for all that doth begin // Should rightly to destruction run; // Twere better then that nothing were begun. // Thus everything that you call Sin, // Destruction - in a word, as Evil represent - // That is my own, real element.“


“Psyche” is not defined. Psychology has no object at all.

One of the least understood concepts is that of the “psyche”. Formerly the word “psyche” was used mythological and religiously and actually relatively well understood, since modernism it has been going through the propaganda mills, and no one can really say what it could be or even is. Misunderstood words or concepts are especially well suited for the propaganda and the establishment of new religions. Funny, isn't it? No, that's not funny, that's fateful, isn't it?


“Psyche” is not defined. Psychology has no object at all.

There is no psychological object (for research and so on). So it is not true if someone says that “psychology is the scientific or objective study of the psyche” (**). It is not proven that „psychology is the scientific or objective study of the psyche” (**); and as long as this is not proven one can say that the definition of “psyche” is unproven and probably false.It is also not true that the word “psyche” is “one of the fundamental concepts for understanding human nature from a scientific point of view” (**), since there is no psychological “nature”, because there is no psychlogical object.

No other words or concepts are more misused for power, control, propaganda, agitation, oppression, elimination etc. than (1.) “psyche” (incl. “psychological”, “psychology”, “psychiatric”, “psychiatry” and so on), (2.) “social” (incl. “sociological”, “sociology” and so on), (3.) “eco” (incl. “ecological”, “ecology”, also “economic[al]”, “economy”, “economics”etc.) and (4.) “climate”.


Greed is very bad, unhealthy, and homicidal.


„Warum ist überhaupt Seiendes und nicht vielmehr Nichts?“ - Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.
Translation: “Why is there being and not rather nothing?”

So that sentence is Leibniz’ sentence. Later Heidegger were also very intensively busy relating to that sentence. Heidegger meant, inter alia, that in situations of fear nothingness becomes apparent:

„In der hellen Nacht des Nichts der Angst entsteht erst die ursprüngliche Offenbarkeit des Seienden als eines solchen: daß es Seiendes ist - und nicht Nichts. Einzig weil das Nichts im Grunde des Daseins offenbar ist, kann die volle Befremdlichkeit des Seienden über uns kommen und die Grundfrage der Metaphysik: Warum ist überhaupt Seiendes und nicht vielmehr Nichts?“ - Martin Heidegger, Was ist Metaphysik?, 1929.
Translation: “In the bright night of nothingness of anxiety the original openness of being as such only arises: that it is being - and not nothing. Only because the nothingness is apparently on grounds of the existence (»Dasein«), the full strangeness of being can come upon us and the fundamental question of metaphysics: Why is there being rather than nothing.”


Leibniz, Wolff, Kant - that's the line from Leibniz to Kant (with some more philosophical„stations“ and persons between them, for example Martin Knutzen) which leads to many other lines, amongst others to Wilhelm von Humboldt. Why I am mentioning Wilhelm von Humboldt? Because of the fact that you mentioned Chomsky. Chomsky's linguistic theories are based on the philosophy and especially on the ideas of Leibniz and especially of Wilhelm von Humboldt (Neu-Idelaismus - New-Idealism). Generally it may be right to say that he is at first a Kantian, then a Leibnizian, and then a Humboldtian, but in some aspects (see above: linguistics) it is reverse: at first a Humboldtian, then a Leibnizian, and then a Kantian. Let's say he is a rationalist and idealist.


There is no “free will”, but merely a relative free will.


Technology does not necessarily mean an eternal progressive development because technology can be reduced, for example by humans (politics etc.) or by nature itself (catastrophes etc.).


Human beingss are living beings of luxury. Therefore they have such a brain, such a mind, such a language, etc.. Machines don't need luxury. They are merely beings of logic, reason, rationality. But they are able to know what luxury really is.


Knowledge depends on genetics, because intelligence is mostly based on genetics, and on education, thus on a relatively long time; so it is not primarily a question of a market, or of capitalism versus communism, but a fortiori of culture. Knowledge can be used in several ways; so it is also important to keep knowledge by selecting the right people with their achievements and trustworthiness, and that (of course!) is also not primarily a question of a market, or of capitalism versus communism, but a fortiori of culture.

When it comes to speaking about knowledge, the meaning of knowledge, and the importance of knowledge for a “society” and its economy, then it is primarily important to do it in connection (1.) genetics and evolution of intelligence, (2.) education and history of culture (cultural evolution), (3.) information (including all kinds of communication that leads to knowledge, e.g. all sciences, semiotics, linguistics, philosophy, mathematics, if they are in fact no sciences). That does not mean that economy is somehow unimportant. No. That only means that knowledge is firstly a genetic/biological and cultural issue (remember and see above: “long time”) - and guess why this issue is a taboo in the Western “societies” -, and secondly an economical issue, but then (and only then), if such knowledge is well arrived in economy, then there is such a great feedback that the West had in the past, still has in the present (although the negative trend shows clearly in the other way!), but will not have anymore in the future.

So first of all a “society” has to have people with knowledge and a trustful will to work, thus intelligent people with a trustful will to work, and only then it can also enjoy the advantages of this people because they have enriched the economy and via economy also the “society”.


“Human rights” “are” to be read only on paper and “are” because of merely one “right”: 1% of the humans „is“ allowed to exploit and destroy the Earth and 99% of the humans.


Maybe you are not alive! Maybe we all are not alive! Maybe only philosophy is alive! Maybe only thinking is alive!

Can this be true? Can it be a fact? Can we know it? Can it be objective? Or is it just subjective?

Maybe we can never overcome the subject/object dualism (**).


There is only one fundament of religion and science: the belief - belief in truth. B.t.w.: philosophy has this fundament too.

Belief as the belief (or faith) in truth is the fundament, and then it goes:

RELIGION => THEOLOGY (DIVINITY) => PHILOSOPHY/SCIENCE => NEW THEOLOGY (NEW DIVINITY) => NEW RELIGION.

The result is a new beleif (or faith) in truth.

The Occidental culture is a Faustian culture, a culture of science and has a very long history. To me this Faustain culture is the most interesting and the most likable culture of all times. But nevertheless: also this Faustian culture has two sides: a good one and a bad one. After this culture had eked out its science it reached the top of its history - science seemed to be „free“ -, then it created a new theology (new divinity) because science was regarded as a kind of deity, but then, when the first serious enemies of science emerged, it had to change its new theology (new divinity) into new religion. Today the Westerners are still on this way of changing science from a new theology (new divinity) into a new religion, but they are already very close to the goal of this way: a new belief (or faith) in truth.

What does that mainly mean?

The Faustian culture has been defending its science more and more due to the fact that it has been getting more and more enemies. One of the consequences is that science has been becoming a part of the rulers, thus its former enemies.

An Occidental scientist of the Occidental culture's modern times can never be an atheist, or an areligious one, or an disbeliever - that has been being imposible since the Occidental science started its “way” from a new theology (new divinity) to a new religion and its goal: a new belief (or faith) in truth.

There is no doubt that science is a success story of the Occidental culture, perhaps the most successful story of all times, so I am proud and grateful. But this is also not a never-ending story, and perhaps it will end very badly.

The next time you visit the scientific “church” (“universiy”) or a a public discussion of the so-called scientific “experts” (priests and preachers), you may be reminded of the two sides of science.

Once science was an enemy of the rulers, today it is almost entirely under the control of the rulers.


“Isms” are forms of ideological systems, not forms of government, and both are not the same. But those „isms“ are included anyway, because forms of government and ideological systems “like” or even “love” each other very much, especially in modern times, the times of “isms”.

„Ich bin ein Teil des Teils, der anfangs alles war, // Ein Teil der Finsternis, die sich das Licht gebar,
Das stolze Licht, das nun der Mutter Nacht // Den alten Rang, den Raum ihr streitig macht. // Und doch gelingt's ihm nicht, da es, so viel es strebt, // Verhaftet an den Körpern klebt.“ - Johann Wolfgang (von) Goethe, Faust (I), 1790 / 1808, S. 67. **
Tranlsation:
“But I'm Part of the Part which at the first was all, // Part of the Darkness that gave birth to Light, // The haughty Light that now with Mother Night // Disputes her ancient rank and Space withal, // And yet 'twill not succeed, since, // strive as strive it may, // Fettered to bodies will Light stay.”

„Was Du ererbt von deinen Vätern hast, // Erwirb es, um es zu besitzen.“ - Johann Wolfgang (von) Goethe, Faust (I), 1790 / 1808, S. 39. **
Tranlsation:
“What you have inherited from your fathers, // Acquire it in order to possess it.”


„Jeder Grieche hat einen Zug von Don Quijote, jeder Römer einen von Sancho Pansa - was sie sonst noch waren, tritt dahinter zurück.“ - Oswald Spengler, Der Untergang des Abendlandes, 1917, S. 50 (**).
Translation:

„Each Greek has a trait of Don Quixote, each Roman has a trait of Sancho Panza - what they were otherwise, recedes behind that.”

Who could be a „Don Quixote“ today? Who could be a „Sancho Panza“ today?


IQ map:

Intelligenz


Humans have no “free will”, but only a relative free will.


The reasons why beliefs, thoughts, theories, metaphysical ontologies, philosophies of physics are different refers to the difference of cultures. Two examples of that much different that they are antipodes are the Apollonian culture and the Faustian culture. The humans of the Apollonian Culture always interpret physical bodies staticallly, the humans of the Faustian culture dynamically. So it is no wonder that in the Faustian culture a „Faust“ came to the idea to interpret the dynamics (and no longer the rest position, the statics) as the normal state of a physical body and to postulate forces as the cause of this dynamics.

Newtons physcal theory is one of these Faustian physical theories, although there had been many more Faustian physical theories before Newton, especially those of Johann(es; Georg) Faust himself, or of Galileo Galilei, or of Johannes Kepler, and also after Newton.


Philosophy has many facets and aspects. And you don’t have to have read any book in order to be a philosopher. Having read books can be an advantage, but also a disadvantage; in any case it is not necessarily important in order to become or be a philosopher.


In any case:

One has to have electric transmitter, for example: nerves.

Without logic consciousness makes no sense because there must be a construction of a logical relationship for the consciousness, even also when it is merely an imagination. Without logic language makes also no sense. But what about logic? Does logic make sense without consciousness? No. Does logic make sense without language? Probably yes. A very primitive bacterium somehow “knows” what to do in order to survive, but probably does not need a language (note: language does not necessarily always mean „human language“, but also “language for all beings”).

Another consideration:

Luxury.

If we consider the principle „luxury“, we come to other results: in that case namely the language came perhaps first because the sense behind it was simply the luxury from which other phenomena arose, e.g. logic. So the grunt (as an example) has only a meaning behind it because of the luxury of grunts.

Referring to the German scientist Paul Alsberg (cp. „Das Menschheitsrätsel“, 1922) the German philosopher Peter Sloterdijk once said (in: Geo - Wissen, September 1998, S. 43-47): “The human beings are descended from the throw” (translated by me) and “human beings have no coat / fur / hide / pett anymore because they are luxury beings” (translated by me), no beings of adaptation to their environment (cp. Darwin and Darwinism), but on the contrary: beings of alienation, of insulation (cp. isles and islands). Human language, human sexuality, human emotions ... etc. are possibly caused by luxury. But what about language in general then?


We really do not know for sure whether Nietzsche wasn’t against Jesus. Nietzsche in his “early times as a philosopher” was not against Jesus, Nietzsche in his “middle times as a philosopher” was not very much against Jesus, and Nietzsche in his “late times as philosopher” was against Jesus, although not always. It is really difficult to find the truth about Nietzsche's relationship with Jesus and Christianity because the whole Nietzsche has to be considered.


„The Birth of Tragedy“ - for example - shows Nietzsche’s „early times as an adult philosopher“, and his „early times as an adult philosopher“ are one of the well „closed“ periods of Nietzsche`s philosphical life, and because of that Nietzsche in his „early times as an adult philosopher“ is not difficult to understand. The problem is the whole Nietzsche, his four or even five philosophical periods, not each of them because each of them are a well closed and well known single period, and, if combinded, probably also not two of them. The problem of understanding Nietzsche’s philosophical life is his problematic life itself, especially after he broke with Wagner (and „The Birth of Tragedy“ belongs to the period before Nietzsche broke with Wagner).


Nietzsche in his middle and late time of an adult philosopher admired the original Christianity mainly just because of its historical success. And who was the one who historically brought the Christianity to the success? It was Paulus.


Stopping change is good when the change itself has become a problem, when every attempt of stopping it leads to more change ... and more and more change ..., when the disaster has already become apparent. I am not against change, but too much change is a problem. Unfortunately it would take change to stop humans from making all these changes, yes, and we have many examples for that - that was the reason why I said stopping change leads to more change (because stopping change requires change) and even more than more change (because stopping change leads to reactions, thus more change). It's almost a vicious circle.


There are mathematics, logic (philosophy), linguistics, semiotics on the one side which is more spiritual than material, and there are physics, chemistry, biology, economy (incl. sociology and others) on the other side which is more material than spiritual.

So we have:

|Mathematics||Logic (Philosophy)||Linguistics||Semiotics| “versus” |Physics||Chemistry||Biology||Economy (Sociology a.o.)|

This is not merely meant in the sense of scientific disciplines, but also and especially in the sense of existence at all.

There are two sides of existence: a more spiritual than material and a more material than spiritual which are different concentrations of the same thing, interconvertible, and that means that they are similar to energy and mass).


„Geben Sie Gedankenfreiheit!“ - Friedrich Schiller, Don Karlos, 1787.
Translation:
“Give freedom of thought!”


The luxury is a very special phenomenon, especially for human beings. Human beings are luxury beings. They make their artificial island of luxury in the sea of nature. Evolution is not just about adaptation to nature, but also about distancing from nature, thus about the luxury islands.

For human beings luxury is not the exception but the rule.

The so-called “revolutions” are also and especially a part of the luxury. They are a special kind of luxury for they occur because the so-called “revolutionary” want the power and thus the greatest possible luxury gratis, without any work, without any effort, ... and so on.


Human beings are luxury beings.

The classes are merely a part of the consequences. Either there are two classes (upper and lower) or there are three classes (upper, middle, lower), and believe me: the higher the number of classes, the better the society as a whole. A „classless society“ is no society but a primitive horde, often without real houses. In any other case: a “classless society” is rhetoric of those who want to become the upper class, thus the power, thus the luxury.


There are merely two kinds of human get-together possible: (1) a modern one (with a middle class and modern luxury) or (2) a non-modern one (without a middle class, but with non-modern luxury). What remains? The power, the classes (either two or three), and the luxury, but either as (1) a modern one or as (2) a non-modern one. If there will be no human luxury anymore, then the Earth will have become an inhabitable planet.


For valuing one has to be able to estimate, for example of something’s worth; in the case of self-valuing the self’s worth. But for the ability of estimation and consequently of valuing one needs awareness, and for awareness one needs something like a brain or at least an electric transmitter like a nerve.

How can - according to the so-called “Value Ontology” (“VO”) - “an atom” be “a self-valuing”? Is it meant in the way that an electron is the electric transmitter I mentioned?


Mainly there were not books, but there was always the life. The life was the most influence for my philosophy.

If you want to know at the least one book, then I say it was a good dictionary.


I don’t think that Nietzsche’s texts are difficult to understand - the revers is true: Nietzsche’s texts are easy to understand. Nietzsche said this and that, there are some contradictions in his texts, but they as such are not difficult to understand.


For Pythagoras, the world was a harmonious whole, an eternal, divine being: the cosmos. The world harmony was musical for him. Pythagoras had recognised that numerical relations arrange for the harmonic series of tones.

If all humans had merely a bit more music in their souls (and not in their supermarkets), they would be much more happy, peaceful, and satisfied.


Relating to the process of awareness / consciousness there are two “ways”: (1) the way from semiotical, linguistical operations to logical (philosophical), mathematical operations, (2) the way from mathematical operations to logical (philosophical), linguistical, semiotical operations.

Some of the non-human living beings have consciousness, but they have a very much smaller brain and less consciousness than the human beings have. Only human beings have such very, very complex conscious systems, especially the linguistical, the logical (philosophical), and the mathematical system. Let's say that some of the non-human living beings have a pre-consciousness because the diffrence betwenn their consciousness and the consciousness of the human beings is too large.

An example:

A lioness “instinctively »knows«” how much cubs she has. When one or more of them are lost, she realises it, but she can't count like humans can. At first the lioness “goes” the conscious “way 1” without any linguistical and logical operations (see above), thus from the semiotical operations (sign: “lost cubs”) to the mathematical operation (“all cubs – missing cubs”), and then she “goes” the conscious “way 2” without logical and linguistical operations (see above), thus from the mathematical operations (for example: 7 – 2 = 5) to the semiotical operation (sign= “less cubs”). The mathematics in the brain of the lioness works but she doesn't “consciously »know«” that it works.

Another example:

A predator must be able to calculate the “worth” of attacking a prey. If it is not profitable or even too dangerous, it is better to protect oneself and to gather forces. A predator with a broken leg can hardly catch a prey; a predator with a broken lower jaw can hardly eat a prey: a predator without a tongue can hardly drink. Predators must “instinctively »know«” much about their environment and their skills, their risks, what is possible and what is too dangerous.

In order to survive the non-human living beings don't need such a complex brain, such a complex awareness / consciousness, especially such complex systems of language (linguistics) and logic (philosophy), as the human beings have. Human beings are luxury beings (**|**|**|**|**|**).

Human beings can say: “I don't want to eat today because tomorrow or later I am going to eat a Sacher torte”. The evolution of the luxury beings means the process of winning more and more luxury at the cost of losing more and more instincts, means becoming less and less beings of adaptation to the environment but more and more beings of alienation, of insulation. Nevertheless, human beings are also predators, but they are luxury predators because they are luxury beings.


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