On the right side you see four layers as levels.
Aristoteles thought of a fifth one, which he called Hyle.
However. Except the Anorganic Things, each of that levels is relatively
free and supported by the level / levels below - according
to the positions. The more a level is up the more it is free,
but no level is generally free, but relatively free. And
the more a level is up the more it depends on the level /
levels below. So Anorganic Things stem Biological Body,
Psyche, and Geist (mind etc.). The Biological Body is more relaively
free than the Anorganic Things, the Psyche is more relatively free
than the Biological Body, and the Geist is more relatively free
than the Psyche. When it comes to that what the levels are by theirselves,
they do not depend on any other level - exception: Anorganic Things,
which depend on no level anyway. So for example the Geist, which
means the most relatively free level, does not depend on the other
levels when it comes to that what the Geist is by itself.
According to Nicolai Hartmann there are four levels
of reality. These four levels are characterized by the fact that the
respective higher (and lighter) levels are carried or borne by the
respective lower (and heavier) levels and free towards
the respective lower (and heavier) levels - insofar as their freedom
is not restricted by the fact that they are carreid or borne -, especially
because they show new properties or characteristics against the respective
lower levels. The (1) first, lowest, haeviest one is the anorganic
level; the (2) second, second-lowest (and third highest), second-haeviest
(and third-lightest) one is the organic level; the (3) third, third-lowest
(and second-highest), third-heaviest (and second-lightest) one is
the level of Seelisches, which means properties or characteristics
of soul, psyche, emotion; the (4) fourth, highest, lightest one is
the level of Geistiges, which means properties or characteristics
of spirit, thinking, intellectuality, imagery. So, for example, the
anorganic level (1) is carried or borne by no other level, whereas
the level of Geistiges (1) is carried or borne by all
other levels. Anorganic beings (1) do not need an organic body (2),
do not need Seelisches (3), do not need Geistiges
(4), whereas even the highest spirit of all times (4) needs Seelisches
(3), needs an organic body (2), needs anorganic beings (1). The fourth
level is not capable of existing without the other three levels, because
it is carried or borne by them. The third level is not capable of
existing without the second and the first level, because it is carried
or borne by them. The second level is not capable of existing without
the first level, because it is carried or borne by it. Only the first
level is capable of existing without the other three levels, because
it is not carried or borne by them. The first level is unfree because
of its type of determination: causality. The second level is relatively
free in the sense that it is categorially free towards the frist level.
The third level is relatively free in the sense that it is categorially
free towards the second and the first level. The fourth level is relatively
free in the sense that it is most categorially free (but not 100%
free), which means categorially free towards the three other levels.
100%-freedom is not possible: the fact that the lower and heavier
levels carry the higher and lighter levels means that the higher and
lighter levels depend on the lower and heavier levels, although the
higher and lighter levels are relatively free towards the lower and
heavier levels; and the lowest and heaviest level (1) is not free
because of its type of determination: causality. Note: relatively
free means here categorially free; each level has
its own categories.
|(2) Organisches (Leben
Schichten bzw. Kategorien gemäß Nicolai Hartmann.
|(1) Unorganisches (anorganic
things - physicochemical)
Hartmann postulated four laws that apply to the levels of reality:
|| The law of recurrence: Lower categories recur in the higher
levels as a subaspect of higher categories, but never vice versa.
|| The law of modification: The categorial elements modify in
their recurrence in the higher levels (they are shaped by the
characteristics of the higher levels).
||The law of the novum: The higher category is composed of a
diversity of lower elements, but it is a specific novum that
is not included in the lower levels.
||The law of distance between levels: Since the different levels
do not develop continuously but in leaps, they can be clearly
The first and the second level are spatial, the third and the fourth
level are not spatial.
An example: You hit a man and this hit
causes something physically (=> (1)
matter, causality). Maybe you hit that man bcause he has threatened
you; so you just want to save your own life (=> (2)
life, urge). Maybe you groundlessly hate that man and therefore
you hit him (=> (3)
Seele, motif). Maybe your hate is not reasonless, and you hit that
man because of a reason (=> (4)
||Type of Determination **
According to Hartmann, many world views contain the basic mistake
of the fundamental one-sidedness.
|| The materialism tries to derive organic (2),
and spiritual (4)
phenomena from physical processes (1)
and overlooks the more complicated structures at the respective
|| Alike the biologism tries to found emotional (3)
and spiritual (4)
phenomena on the life (2)
principles and overlooks the laws of the novelty and the freedom.
||The vitalism tries an explanation of life (2)
with the principle of the finality, although this is a category
of the Geist (4).
||In the idealism occurs an explanation of the world ((1)
and (2)) in the
principle of the subject, although the subject is to be assigned
to the level of the Geist (4).
Hartmanns theory of levels or categories makes much sense.
Language in general is very much more than human language, but
human language is the greatest one. All the so called progress
of human beings is based on the language of human beings. It's just
the human language which led to the difference between the ancestors
of the human beings and the human beings. That was the beginning
of human language, the larynge sank which caused a very complex
phonetic, the brain grew in an exponential degree. So one can say
that the phonetical sound was important for human beings (=>
their language development) and for their very young children (=>
their language acquisition) and also has been being important for
very young children (=> their language acquisition). But phonetical
sound was NOT important for the general language, because in the
beginning of general language there were only chemical signs - at
that time there was NO possibility for any development of sound.
Unfortunately science has been becoming a religion. The reason
is control, thus power. And I don't know whether science will ever
recover from its dependency, awake from its sleep (sleep is currently
perhaps the wrong word, because the current scientists know about
their cowardly situation). Probably science will remain as religion
until all human beings are eliminated or probably replaced by machines.