S U B J E C T
V E R S U S O B J E C T
We have the subject-object-dualism. In order to overcome the subject-object-dualism
Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) established his existence-philosophical
(To-be-in-the-World) as an existential of human beings
as a human existence in the world. **
I think the subject/object dualism is one of the fundamental problems.
Heidegger as the last great philosopher tried to overcome the problem
with his Existenz(ial)-Ontologie
(existenc[e]ial ontology), also called Fundamentalontologie
(fundamental ontology), especially with his concept
(To-Be-in-the-World) as an existential of human beings'
as a human existence in the world. (**).
I really don't know whether Heidegger succeeded in that case. Probably
it is not possible to resolve that problem.
I think that the subject/object dualism is one of the greatest
philosophical problems - perhaps even the greatest.
How can we and especially each of us ever experience whether the
subjective or the objective side is the truth?
What makes me sure that I and the experiences I make with myself
reallyexist, or the world and the experiences I make
with it reallyexist? And especially: Which of both sides
is true, or are both true? Which? (1.)
The subjective one? (2.) The objective
one? (3.) Both?
Do I think, or does the world think in me, or are both sides true?
Is the world my will and my representation / idea (cp. Arthur Schopenhauer,
Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung [The World
as Will and Representation], 1818), or merely nothing but
my thoughts, or both?
Phlilosophemes or theories can be right or true without any solution
of the subject/object problem because we human beings merely decide
and say this or that is true/right or false/wrong, but we probably
do not know what is true/right or false/wrong. That decisions always
change, but also repeat or recapitulate somehow, and only sometimes
there is a moment of more wisdom. Maybe that this moment of more
wisdom (of some philosophers or other thinkers - of course) can
resolve the problem of the subject/object dualism, but it is possible
too that this moment of more wisdom also indicates that the problem
of the subject/object dualism can probably not be resolved.
Please dont forget: We - the human beings - decide or say
that this or that is true/right or false/wrong. And we believe in
that - more or less. Ask some members of this forum, whether they
really believe in logic or not. Most of them would say: Yes,
but ..., and with their but they actually
say No(, but ...), because they would rather
believe in religious things, especially the so called atheists.
So there ist merely a small group of human beings who search for
a solution for the problem of the subject/object dualism. And currently
the average IQ of the human beings is declining. What does that
mean? In any case: It also indicates that the most human beings
do not want wisdom, but religion and other things which make them
stupid. Or, in the orther case, they want wisdom, but are not wanted
to want wisdom, but religion and other things which make them stupid.
But the greatest barrier is the human Geist itself. How
can we really know that a subject is and that a object
is without thinking that they are always different or
even not existent?
Many people don't think very much, but if (if!) they
really think that something exists, they do it in two different
ways: (1) subjectively, so they think
existence has merely to do with the thinking subject, and (2)
objectively, so they think existence is something which has nothing
to do with the thinking subject. If people think they can perceive
the object, they actually have to ask themselves, whether that object
exists without any subject or because of the existence of the perceiving
subject, so that the object does not exist. I am speaking about
the subject/object dualism. Is subjectivity or objectivity
that what we call reality or is it both, so that there
is no solution for the subject/object dualism?
If you think that all around you - everything except you - merely
exists because of the fact that you are perceiving and
thinking, then you can also say that there is nothing that exists
except you, so you are either merely a subject without any object
or both subject and object (or even: there is no subject and no
object - because there is no difference between them).
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz once asked:
Do you know the answer?
Or think about the Indian culture/civilisation - the so called
Hinduism - and its concept of nirvana. Do
you exactly know what is meant by that? Non-Indian and Indian people
have a different understanding of nirvana.. Is it nothingness,
nonentity? (That is the way how Western people understand nirvana.)
What is it?
What do you think when you are anxious and don't know the reason
- the cause - for that fact? What or who affects you
then? Is it the nothingness? And if so, then the nothingness also
affects, but is it then really nothingness?
We can think the nothingness and the difference between subject
and object. Is this difference the nothingness? Or is it even the
affectance? Or both? Are they the same (see above) or
at least similar? If so, then we can't know anything of them because
it is the definition - the linguistic convention or the lingusitic
laws - of the word nothing to be nothing at all, and
the noun for that is nothingness.
You can't just brush aside our ability for thinking the nothingness
and the subject/object dualism (**).
Nothingness has no affect, else it would be no nothingness. And
if nothingness were no nothingness, then we would have to find another
word for nothingness, and we soon would have find one because we
can think nothingness. Nothingness has no affect, but exists, at
least in our thoughts, and our thoughts exist as well. That all
depends on the definition, so your definition has to be a different
one - and is a different one (I know) -, but if your definition
is right, then you have to exclude nothingness from your definition
Remember that I am philophising, and the philosophy has not resolved
the problem of the subject/object dualism. The science can't resolve
it anyway, and I think the philosophy probably neither.
It is possible that the nothingness is God, or the unmoved mover,
or the unaffected affect.
The sentence I am and the sentence I am not
can not be proven scientifically. Therefore, but not only therefore,
philosophy is necessary. Is philosophy able to answer the questions:
Am I?, Am I not?, Is anything outside
of me?, Is nothing outside of me? ...?
Science is not able to answer that questions (and many other questions).
Philosophy has found some answers - the history of philosophy has
made that clear. But its answers are not very much convincing.
If one says I think, or I am aware, or
I am, then this one says something about a subject (I)
and about an object (think, am aware, am)
or a predicate. The problem of the subjet/object-dualism
is that it is not exactly determinable whether the subjct exists
or not and whether the object exists or not. The former is primarily
a philosophical, the latter mainly a scientific, both together again
a philosophical problem. Concerning this matter the doubter Descartes
proved nothing. About 1¼ centuries before Descartes another
doubter - Martin Luther - founded a Protestant Christian confession:
the Evangelical Lutheran. Luther did not try to prove the existence
of the subject, but sought the answer in belief / faith..
Maybe you are not alive! Maybe we all are not alive! Maybe only
philosophy is alive! Maybe only thinking is alive!
Can this be true? Can it be a fact? Can we know it? Can it be
objective? Or is it just subjective?
Maybe we can never overcome the subject/object dualism.